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New Technique Dramatically Accelerates Computer Programs Without Fear of Errors



New Technique Dramatically Accelerates Computer Programs Without Fear of Errors

Researchers have created a technique that boosts the speeds of programs that run in the Unix shell, a ubiquitous programming environment created 50 years ago, by parallelizing the programs. Credit: Christine Daniloff, MIT

Computer scientists developed a new system that can make computer programs run faster, while guaranteeing

This enables programs to execute tasks like web indexing, natural language processing, or analyzing data in a fraction of their original runtime.

“There are so many people who use these types of programs, like data scientists, biologists, engineers, and economists. Now they can automatically accelerate their programs without fear that they will get incorrect results,” says Nikos Vasilakis, research scientist in the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) at

Vasilakis is senior author of the group’s latest research paper, which includes MIT co-author and CSAIL graduate student Tammam Mustafa and will be presented at the USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation. Co-authors include lead author Konstantinos Kallas, a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania; Jan Bielak, a student at Warsaw Staszic High School; Dimitris Karnikis, a software engineer at Aarno Labs; Thurston H.Y. Dang, a former MIT postdoc who is now a software engineer at Google; and Michael Greenberg, assistant professor of computer science at the Stevens Institute of Technology.

A decades-old problem

This new system, known as PaSh, focuses on program, or scripts, that run in the Unix shell. A script is a sequence of commands that instructs a computer to perform a calculation. Correct and automatic parallelization of shell scripts is a thorny problem that researchers have grappled with for decades.

The Unix shell remains popular, in part, because it is the only programming environment that enables one script to be composed of functions written in multiple programming languages. Different programming languages are better suited for specific tasks or types of data; if a developer uses the right language, solving a problem can be much easier.

“People also enjoy developing in different programming languages, so composing all these components into a single program is something that happens very frequently,” Vasilakis adds.

While the Unix shell enables multilanguage scripts, its flexible and dynamic structure makes these scripts difficult to parallelize using traditional methods.

Parallelizing a program is usually tricky because some parts of the program are dependent on others. This determines the order in which components must run; get the order wrong and the program fails.

When a program is written in a single language, developers have explicit information about its features and the language that helps them determine which components can be parallelized. But those tools don’t exist for scripts in the Unix shell. Users can’t easily see what is happening inside the components or extract information that would aid in parallelization.

A just-in-time solution

To overcome this problem, PaSh uses a preprocessing step that inserts simple annotations onto program components that it thinks could be parallelizable. Then PaSh attempts to parallelize those parts of the script while the program is running, at the exact moment it reaches each component.

This avoids another problem in shell programming — it is impossible to predict the behavior of a program ahead of time.

By parallelizing program components “just in time,” the system avoids this issue. It is able to effectively speed up many more components than traditional methods that try to perform parallelization in advance.

Just-in-time parallelization also ensures the accelerated program still returns accurate results. If PaSh arrives at a program component that cannot be parallelized (perhaps it is dependent on a component that has not run yet), it simply runs the original version and avoids causing an error.

“No matter the performance benefits — if you promise to make something run in a second instead of a year — if there is any chance of returning incorrect results, no one is going to use your method,” Vasilakis says.

Users don’t need to make any modifications to use PaSh; they can just add the tool to their existing Unix shell and tell their scripts to use it.

Acceleration and accuracy

The researchers tested PaSh on hundreds of scripts, from classical to modern programs, and it did not break a single one. The system was able to run programs six times faster, on average, when compared to unparallelized scripts, and it achieved a maximum speedup of nearly 34 times.

It also boosted the speeds of scripts that other approaches were not able to parallelize.

“Our system is the first that shows this type of fully correct transformation, but there is an indirect benefit, too. The way our system is designed allows other researchers and users in industry to build on top of this work,” Vasilakis says.

He is excited to get additional feedback from users and see how they enhance the system. The open-source project joined the Linux Foundation last year, making it widely available for users in industry and academia.

Moving forward, Vasilakis wants to use PaSh to tackle the problem of distribution — dividing a program to run on many computers, rather than many processors within one computer. He is also looking to improve the annotation scheme so it is more user-friendly and can better describe complex program components.

“Unix shell scripts play a key role in data analytics and software engineering tasks. These scripts could run faster by making the diverse programs they invoke utilize the multiple processing units available in modern CPUs. However, the shell’s dynamic nature makes it difficult to

devise parallel execution plans ahead of time,” says Diomidis Spinellis, a professor of software engineering at Athens University of Economics and Business and professor of software analytics at Delft Technical University, who was not involved with this research. “Through just-in-time analysis, PaSh-JIT succeeds in conquering the shell’s dynamic complexity and thus reduces script execution times while maintaining the correctness of the corresponding results.”

“As a drop-in replacement for an ordinary shell that orchestrates steps, but does not reorder or split them, PaSh provides a no-hassle way to improve the performance of big data-processing jobs,” adds Douglas McIlroy, adjunct professor in the Department of Computer Science at Dartmouth College, who previously led the Computing Techniques Research Department at Bell Laboratories (which was the birthplace of the Unix operating system). “Hand optimization to exploit parallelism must be done at a level for which ordinary programming languages (including shells) don’t offer clean abstractions. The resulting code intermixes matters of logic and efficiency. It’s hard to read and hard to maintain in the face of evolving requirements. PaSh cleverly steps in at this level, preserving the original logic on the surface while achieving efficiency when the program is run.”

Reference: “Practically Correct, Just-in-Time Shell Script Parallelization” by Konstantinos Kallas, Tammam Mustafa, Jan Bielak, Dimitris Karnikis, Thurston H.Y. Dang, Michael Greenberg and Nikos Vasilakis.


This work was supported, in part, by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Science Foundation.



E3 isn’t coming again



E3 isn’t coming again

E3 2023 is cancelled, and the gaming trade is mourning. Like my colleague Ash Parrish, I’ve all the time wished to go, however don’t assume I’ll ever get the prospect; the trade has modified sufficient that it’s in all probability not coming again.

Even E3’s organizers don’t appear optimistic. The Leisure Software program Affiliation’s (ESA)  president and CEO utterly dodged when requested if the occasion would return in 2024.

“We’re dedicated to offering an trade platform for advertising and convening however we wish to ensure that we discover that proper stability that meets the wants of the trade,” Stanley Pierre-Louis informed the publication. “We’re definitely going to be listening and guaranteeing no matter we wish to provide meets these wants and at the moment, we may have extra information to share.” Examine to 2022, when the organizers had been already talking about 2023 after they cancelled that yr’s present.

A press launch from occasion organizer ReedPop did give a tiny ray of hope, saying that it and the ESA would “proceed to work collectively on future E3 occasions.” However I simply don’t imagine that future E3 occasions will occur in any respect.

Nintendo Demos New Titles For Nintendo Switch For Celebrities At 2019 E3 Gaming Convention

The pandemic proved that gaming may survive with out E3. The final yr E3 occurred in particular person was in 2019; the occasion was cancelled in 2020, held as a digital show in 2021, and bounced from in particular person to online-only and at last to fully cancelled last year in 2022. But even with out E3 as an anchor, builders and publishers have discovered methods to make a splash that don’t embody the funding required for a giant sales space on the expo present flooring.

And when the pandemic arrived, the trade already had a playbook to observe — a playbook written by Nintendo. Since 2011, the corporate has seen monumental success with its Nintendo Direct video displays, letting anybody on the earth watch huge recreation reveals with out attending a bodily present.

Since then, almost each main gaming firm has adopted the format to create newsworthy moments of their very own, and so they’re pre-recorded ones that may’t break down on stage or might embarrass in entrance of a reside viewers. The movies may be printed each time fits the corporate as an alternative of cramming all of them into June, letting them create their very own information cycles about upcoming video games with out having to share a highlight with anybody else. Then, they will ship journalists software program over the web, no want to attend for a locked-down demo console.

The pandemic additionally proved that firms can launch complete console generations with out important hands-on alternatives forward of their debut. Each the PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series X / S had been launched in November 2020, and whereas constraints created partially as a result of pandemic made them almost impossible to find for years, these consoles have confirmed to be hits. Why trouble to indicate new {hardware} at E3 sooner or later?

Now the fits know learn how to Zoom and Slack and Groups, who nonetheless wants an expo?

For years, one of many remaining arguments for E3 has been that it’s a spot for firms to do enterprise in particular person, get face-to-face time, and shake palms on stage to advertise their manufacturers. However even execs have been pressured to determine learn how to do these issues remotely in the course of the pandemic, and will not want it anymore.

The large console makers have usually moved away from E3 as of late, anyway. PlayStation skipped E3 2019 in favor of internet hosting its personal video displays at completely different occasions all year long. Nintendo had already mentioned that it wouldn’t be collaborating in E3 this year, and whereas that doesn’t preclude the corporate from making information in June, it could be content material to let The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom do the talking. As quickly as Nintendo pulled out, I actually began to fret that E3 2023 may not occur. However after Microsoft opted out of this yr’s present flooring in favor of its personal showcase in Los Angeles around Starfield, it felt just like the writing was on the wall.

And within the absence of E3, Geoff Keighley has stepped in to fill the void. He launched his first all-digital Summer Game Fest in June 2020, and he’s since hosted one yearly as a venue for E3-like gaming bombshells. Positive, some years had been better than others, however with E3 now fully out of the image for 2023, it appears doubtless that this yr’s Fest will suck up a few of what was deliberate for the conference.

I’m not saying in-person conventions are useless. E3 really hasn’t been the most important online game conference for years — it’s one-sixth the dimensions of Gamescom, held in Germany yearly, and different abroad conventions are bigger too. Even in america, final week’s Game Developers Conference had news and January’s Consumer Electronics Show was surprisingly fun, simply to call two latest examples.

E3 simply doesn’t appear to suit the wants of the gaming trade anymore — and so the trade has moved on.

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Y’all, this laptop computer is an excessive amount of



Y’all, this laptop computer is an excessive amount of

Once in a while I obtain one in all these weird little computer systems that Asus has performed in collaboration with somebody or different, and my senses are ever so barely overwhelmed. They made one with an animated exploding head on the lid. There was one which become a DJ deck. There was one covered in dogs.

However this newest launch — the ROG Circulate Z13 ACRNM — is likely to be the wackiest one but to cross my desk. There is no such thing as a discernible theme, rhyme, or motive to it. It’s pure chaos, prime to backside. Which, you recognize what, nice. It’s 2023. Truthful sufficient.

The Circulate Z13 is the second collaboration between ROG and ACRONYM, an attire model that sells items like this $1,800…dress, I think? It’s a 13.4-inch gaming pill with a kickstand and removable keyboard — a gaming Surface Pro, for lack of a greater descriptor.

With a value of $2,499.99, our Core i9 13900H/RTX 4070/16GB RAM/1TB SSD/2560 x 1600 check unit targets a reasonably area of interest viewers — on-the-go avid gamers with deep pockets and a deeper want to undertaking an edgily chaotic aesthetic. Most individuals shouldn’t be spending this a lot. If it’s the convertible pill you’re after, you’ll be able to trick out a Surface Pro 9 for $500 much less. If it’s gaming energy and portability you’re after, a really comparable Zephyrus G14 is even cheaper. However the Z13 serves its explicit, particular area of interest about in addition to a laptop computer can.

The Asus ROG Flow Z13 Acronym keyboard on a white table seen from above.

Any concept which of those keys modifications the amount? I positive don’t know.

The Type

Listed here are some phrases that Asus makes use of in its press supplies to sum up the aesthetic it’s going for right here:

  • “A redefinition of cell computing”
  • “Superbly refined but uncooked”
  • “Actually distinctive machine”
  • “A hands-free dream machine”
  • “A useful but placing murals”

So, anyway.

The IJKL keys on the ROG Flow Z13 Acronym.

They’re fairly good keys, although.

It’s avant garde, that’s for positive. Each time I take a look at this factor, I spot one thing else. The underside is roofed in logos and typography (and so they’re not simply stickers; they’re laser-etched into the metallic). The darkish leather-based cowl sports activities a funky-looking form as effectively. I can’t say I actually know what any of them are. If any of you repeatedly take ayahuasca and count on that you just’re conscious of their deeper non secular which means, be at liberty to let me know within the feedback.

The rear is dotted with rubber pads, which do look a bit of bit humorous, however may also do a strong job of retaining the machine in place for those who’re making an attempt to lie it down on a desk. The corners have “drop-resistant crashworthy bumpers”. There’s additionally a strap you can connect to the corners in an effort to sling the factor over your shoulder like a briefcase. Let’s simply say I’m very glad this didn’t come out whereas I used to be in faculty, as a result of I completely would’ve traipsed round campus with this dangling round my entrance like a fanny pack. The cool youngsters would’ve bullied me, and rightly so.

The ROG Flow Z13 stood vertically seen from the bottom.

Don’t ask me what’s happening right here; I haven’t the faintest.

The ROG Flow Z13 seen from behind with the kickstand popped out.

However look, there’s a kickstand!

Eclectic design apart, it is a 13-inch pill with an RTX 4070 and an H-Sequence Core i9 inside. That’s extremely uncommon — these are the varieties of chips you typically count on to see in a lot greater gaming rigs. The keyboard is removable; the kickstand isn’t. Mentioned kickstand permits for each vertical and horizontal orientations, a characteristic Asus has long been convinced that individuals want. I’ve no use for a 16:10 Home windows pill in vertical orientation, however extra energy to you for those who do.

A Floor Professional kind of deal for gaming

Now, the Z13 isn’t notably moveable as tablets go. At 2.91 kilos and 0.61 inches thick, it’s hardly an iPad, and it’s not the kind of factor I’d essentially need to deliver up for an hour-long presentation. Nonetheless, when selecting between carrying this factor in my backpack and carrying, say, a Titan GT77, I’d select this one any day. I used this for some sofa and cafe work, and will match it onto these crowded surfaces with no downside.

One different factor to name out: the show. This mannequin’s has a 165Hz refresh price and 2560 x 1600 decision. It’s fairly vibrant. Quite a lot of completely different shade modes have been out there for numerous several types of video games, and I discovered that they improved the viewing expertise. The 13.4-inch display is a bit small for taking part in most video games, and I needed to squint at some home windows right here and there, however at the very least the QHD+ decision delivers sharp particulars.

So these are the bells and whistles. Right here’s what it’s like to make use of the factor.

The right side of the ROG Flow Z13 Acronym.

That’s the facility button there on the highest.

Asus ROG Circulate Z13 Acronym specs (as reviewed)

  • ROG Nebula contact show, 13.4-inch, QHD+ 16:10 (2560 x 1600), 165Hz
  • thirteenth Gen Intel Core i9-13900H processor 2.6GHz (24M Cache, as much as 5.4 GHz, 14 cores with 6P and 8E)
  • Nvidia GeForce RTX 4070 laptop computer GPU, 8GB DDR6, ROG Enhance 1620MHz at 65W (1620MHz Enhance Clock + 50MHz OC, 50W+15W Dynamic Enhance)
  • 16GB*2 LPDDR5 on board (max capability 32GB)
  • 1TB SSD storage
  • 13MP digicam and 5MP IR digicam
  • Wi-Fi 6E
  • 56Whr battery
  • 130W PD adapter

The Perform

The Z13, effectively, you recognize. It’s a 13.4-inch pill. So, bearing that in thoughts, the body charges have been nice.

Specifically, it had no downside working demanding titles at its native QHD decision. I noticed a median of 232fps on CS:GO and 55fps on Crimson Lifeless Redemption 2, with each titles at most settings. These are each higher outcomes than we noticed from last year’s Zephyrus G14 (which was a full-fledged conventional gaming laptop computer, not one in all these pill issues). They’re not stunningly good to the purpose the place they’re blowing different premium gaming laptops out of the water, and Asus has clearly needed to kneecap the (it’s fed simply 65W of energy — sure, it may well run that low) RTX 4070 to squeeze it into this chassis. It’s a bit like having packed a complete faculty dorm room into the trunk of a sedan. Certain, you probably did it, however at what value?

However I digress. All through, I used to be pleasantly stunned by how effectively the machine was capable of preserve its temperature down. I didn’t see many spikes above 70 levels Celsius as I performed. The good factor about this way issue, too, is that regardless how sizzling the chassis will get, it’s typically not going to switch to the keyboard or palm rests and affect your gaming expertise.

For a further charge, of us may also join the machine to the XG Cell, a line of exterior GPUs that ought to ship considerably larger body charges. You’ll be able to at present get one in all these for around $1,000.

Oh, and the Z13 helps Nvidia’s Superior Optimus. This primarily operates your MUX change for you routinely — it can flip the built-in GPU off once you’re gaming and switch it again on (and switch the discrete GPU off) once you’re performed gaming, which saves you from having to dig by way of your laptop computer’s settings to do this manually. Good! Enjoyable! Like to see it.

The Asus ROG Flow Z13 in laptop mode angled to the right seen from the front on a white table.

Ports embody a combo audio jack, a Thunderbolt 4, a USB 3.2 Sort-A, a USB 3.2 Gen 2 Sort-C and a microSD card reader.

When you have been anticipating this machine to have wonderful battery life, bless your coronary heart, nevertheless it has no such factor. I averaged 4 and a half hours of steady work use, which concerned bouncing round 20-ish Chrome tabs, streaming Spotify, Slacking, and such. I did get a greater battery gaming end result than I’d anticipated to, eking out about 48 minutes of Crimson Lifeless Redemption 2 play to at least one cost. The included 130W adapter can juice the machine as much as 50 % in half-hour, per Asus’s estimates.

Common readers of my opinions would possibly count on a diatribe right here about how wonderful battery life needs to be a baseline expectation for a transportable machine, however actually, I don’t have it in me. I do know that individuals aren’t shopping for this for wonderful battery life or top-of-the-line body charges; they’re shopping for this as a result of it appears to be like prefer it simply fell down from outer house. As effectively they need to.

The Asus ROG FLow Z13 seen from the right side.

It’s a sturdy, non-wobbly kickstand and keyboard.

I do must complain about one factor

I’ve been an open-minded non-curmudgeon the entire manner by way of this evaluate, so I hope you’ll enable me to grump about one factor. I simply can’t with the keyboard. It’s an excessive amount of.

The keys comprise what Asus refers to as “Acronym’s personal customized alphabet”. I’m comfortable to study that Acronym has an alphabet of its personal. Sadly, it’s not the alphabet I must kind with for work.

I’m a really competent contact typist in the case of phrases. However after I must, for instance, kind a quantity on the Z13, it turns into a scavenger hunt. It’s not that the actual numbers aren’t on the Z13’s keys, however they’re buried in a dump of so many different symbols and colours and zany doodads that my eyes couldn’t discover them instinctively. Different issues simply aren’t delineated. For instance, the important thing that lowers the brightness is labeled “DARK” and has a bit of faint grid on it. I perceive what you’re going for, Acronym, however I simply need the common brightness icon. You’ll be able to jazz up the brightness icon. Simply give me the brightness icon.

It appears to be like prefer it fell down from outer house

Wacky designs are a beautiful factor till they start to encroach on the on a regular basis perform of a tool. Kooky laptops are laptops first. The Zephyrus G14 Acronym (which I raved about upon its release) labeled its keyboard keys in a storybook-esque font that made them simpler, not tougher, to learn. It sprinkled different decorations across the keycaps, however they have been clearly and clearly delineated from the keys’ actual precise labels.

Eye-popping designs are nice, and this machine is a singular providing you received’t discover wherever else in the marketplace. I like merchandise which can be unapologetically themselves, whether or not motion pictures or clothes or shopper expertise. However the fundamentals can not fall by the wayside. And I hope firms, as they proceed to innovate, keep in mind that.

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Block is aware of you will have questions, and it doesn’t have good solutions



Block is aware of you will have questions, and it doesn’t have good solutions

Block, recently targeted by short sellers at Hindenburg Research, remains to be presumably exploring its legal options. It has, nonetheless, released a statement about common investor questions it wish to reply. Sadly, not one of the questions it desires to reply are “How did you not discover you had been issuing a money card to an clearly pretend Donald Trump?”

There’s loads in the Hindenburg report, which primarily accuses Block of falling down on the job of fraud prevention. To show the purpose, Hindenburg modified its accounts’ names to “Donald Trump” and “Jack Dorsey,” and so they had been nonetheless capable of ship and obtain cash. They even obtained a debit card underneath the title Donald Trump!

Now, personally, my query was, How might this occur? Block didn’t really feel like answering that query, although! Right here’s what it answered as a substitute:

  • Why would a Money App buyer have a number of accounts?
  • What number of accounts have gone by means of your id verification program?
  • How a lot of Money App’s enterprise comes from these id verified accounts?
  • How does your id verification system work?
  • Is your method to compliance completely different from others?
  • How a lot fraud and illicit exercise do you will have in your system?
  • How is Money App peer-to-peer threat loss mirrored in your financials and the way has it trended over time?
  • How a lot have you ever invested in your compliance program?


So we uncover that some prospects have a number of accounts as a result of they need a number of accounts, that prospects can transact with as much as $1000 throughout any 30-day interval with out id verification, and that Block “consider[s] that our method to compliance is in line with different monetary providers platforms.”

There are a pair issues I need to concentrate on, although, and one in all them has to do with that 30-day interval transaction restrict. It type of looks as if it will be trivial for scammers to create an account, hit their 30-day max, and transfer on to a brand new account? This doesn’t actually disprove any Hindenburg allegation.

However what’s weirder is that this:

Over time, as prospects have interaction extra with our platform or need to use extra merchandise just like the Money App Card, ship cash from their Money App saved stability, or transact at increased greenback quantities, they’re required to finish our IDV [identity verification] course of.

The existence of Hindenburg’s Donald J. Trump money card means that both this isn’t true, the reply is fuzzy someway (ie, you want a number of merchandise to journey the verification wire), or that there’s something deeply mistaken with the id verification course of. Block doesn’t converse to this, and it looks as if a bizarre omission!

The response to the fraud query is, someway, even weirder. Sure, fraud is widespread wherever cash exists — that’s a part of the explanation know your buyer and anti-money laundering legal guidelines exist within the first place. However in estimating fraud, Block makes use of its “denylist,” which prevents transactions. The allegation from Hindenburg is, primarily, that Block’s denylist needs to be bigger. Block responds by saying its denylist is 2 p.c of all transacting accounts. This doesn’t disprove something Hindenburg has claimed. Nor does it converse to any of the allegations within the Hindenburg report.

And relating to peer-to-peer fraud, a serious allegation within the Hindenburg report, we get the same dodge:

This determine has remained at or beneath 0.20% of each relevant peer-to-peer fee quantity and of total inflows for every of the previous 5 years. Whereas we noticed a rise throughout 2020, we’ve got pushed enhancements since, and, in 2022, Money App threat loss acknowledged in gross sales and advertising was 0.14% of relevant peer-to-peer fee quantity and 0.12% of total inflows.

Okay, however how do we all know that Block is counting accurately? Once more, the Hindenburg suggestion is that Block is falling down on the job — so relying by yourself inner figures to rebut that… doesn’t rebut it!

There’s one other factor that lifted my eyebrows:

The 44 million verified accounts represented roughly 39 million distinctive Social Safety numbers as of December 2022 (we use Social Safety quantity as a logical, distinctive identifier to estimate the variety of identities on this evaluation).

So some Social Safety numbers have a number of verified accounts. Certain! They usually did disclose of their 10-Okay that one buyer can have a number of accounts. Positive! However right here’s my query, which isn’t answered straight and pertains exactly to the Donald J. Trump card: Does the title on the account must match the title related to the Social Safety quantity? I ask as a result of, you realize, there are loads of Social Safety numbers on the market on the darkish net. The assertion doesn’t say.

One different factor caught out to me:

The corporate’s compliance investments have grown greater than twice as quick as total gross revenue, and compliance investments have additionally meaningfully elevated as a proportion of our total working bills.

The query right here is, “How a lot have you ever invested in your compliance program?” and Block doesn’t reply it. There’s a quantity in a price range someplace for this, and but, we don’t see it! As an alternative, we get informed that compliance investments have “grown twice as quick as total gross revenue.” It is rather simple to double the dimensions of one thing small, and I do not know in what timeframe that development has taken place.

The factor about this non-answer is that Block requested the query itself in its personal press launch. It’s not like I confirmed up carrying my fedora with a press card within the brim and requested CEO Jack Dorsey a hard-hitting query he was unprepared for. This query might simply have been omitted slightly than dodged. That’s surprising to me!

Anyway, primarily based on this, I will probably be shocked if Block recordsdata that lawsuit it was threatening. Block has promised extra dialogue of this on its forthcoming earnings name, and I genuinely hope analysts rake them over the coals, as a result of this assertion is a nothingburger. Speaking previous Hindenburg isn’t the identical as disproving their allegations — did Block actually assume nobody would discover that? Possibly Dorsey is a blockhead in additional than simply title.

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